Friday, December 27, 2019
Thursday, December 19, 2019
UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL COLLEGE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTING SUBJECT: ACCOUNTING THEORY AND PRACTICE PREPARE FOR: DR.NORHAYATI MAT HUSIN PREPARE BY: NUR FADZILAH BT NORIZAN (AC086628) NUR IZYAN BT MOHD ISHAK (AC086934) NURUL AQILAH BT ZAMRI (AC085167) THILAGA SEGARAN (AC086628) BACHELOR IN ACCOUNTING (HONS) CASE 1: WASTE MANAGEMENT a) Define the matching principle and explain why it is important to users of financial statements. Matching principle requires a company to match expenses with related revenues that they helped to generate in order to report a companys profitability. The matching is based on a causeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Increases in the useful life of assets have the effect of increasing the value of an asset and reducing expenses. This change can have a material impact on the financial statements. However, even though the management of Waste Management want to have impact on its financial statement, the management should not make any substantial changes to figures reported by the operational unit. These changes must be properly disclosed as required by GAAP under the Full Disclosure Principle which requires management to disclose sufficient information to allow the user to make a judgment about the financial position of Waste Management. c) According to the current IFRS, is a company allowed to change the useful life and salvage value of its fixed assets? If yes, when and how? Under GAAP, a company allowed to change the useful life and the salvage value of its fixed assets if the circumstances or events disclose the additional information show that change of useful life and salvage value more accurately and show the current market situation. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also stated should have the legitimate basis for do any changes to their variables. Furthermore, according to the SEC, changes to the variables used in estimating depreciation and the resulting impact to investors should be stated in the financial statements. d) As an auditor, what type of evidence woul youShow MoreRelatedAccounting Theory and Practice Essay2225 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesreached about what perspective theories should be used to explain the Social and Environmental Accounting, and moreover critique voices are from the works of Marx or by the deep-green or feminist literatures (Deegan, 2002), to some extent, systems-oriented theory and Positive Accounting Theory can list some hints. 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Ã Ã The purpose of this essay is to provide an overview of positive accounting theory (PAT) and highlight how this theory differs to normative accounting theory. Definitions and assumptions of both theories will be considered and examples of the theories will be provided. In addition specific theories related to PAT namely agency and the efficientRead More3101AFE Seminar Questions from Seminars 1 6 Sem 1 20151558 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿3101AFE Accounting Theory and Practice Seminar Questions for Seminars 1- 6: Semester 1 2015 SEMINAR 1 - Semester 1 2015 Deegan Topic 1: Introduction to financial accounting theory QUESTION 1 Ã¢â¬â Question 1.2: If you developed a theory to explain how a personÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural background influences how they prepare financial statements, would you have developed a positive theory or a normative theory? QUESTION 2 - Question 1.3: What is a conceptual framework, and would it be considered to be a positiveRead MoreEssay on Annotated Bibliography1285 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages1997, Ã¢â¬ËAccounting and the Construction of the Governable PersonÃ¢â¬â¢, Accounting, Organizations and Society, vol.12, n.03, pp235-265. Main Argument In this article, Miller et al. concern about the understanding of the historical foundation of accounting practice by investigating how theories of costing and budgeting were constructed in the first thirty years of the 20th century. In addition, the authors suggest several radical factors of theoretical understanding of accounting in relationRead MoreSample Resume : My Cooperative Education Placement Essay1562 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages I assisted in other accounting tasks in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s head office as well as other stores. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Situation Analysis of Mondelez International. Answer: Introduction: The assignment is a study of the current situation of a company which can help in making recommendations about the companys future. The company considered is Mondelez Internatioanl Australia and New Zealand. The assignment is divided into two main issues, the external analysis and internal analysis. The report answers the question regarding the business environment and competitive analysis of Mondelez. The scope of the assignment spans over the news paper articles, journals and magazines to draw the necessary matter. The external analysis section is divided into sections, the first is the macro environment trends while the second is a competitive analysis. The internal section delves into the aspects of Mondelez like financial strengths, human resource management and so on. The final section is the conclusion along with the recommendations for Mondelez. Mondelez International Australia and New Zealand is the Australian arm of Mondelez International and is one of the largest manufacturers and marketers of food in Australia. The company has its headquarters in Melbourne and owns Vegemite and Cadbury. The company earned net revenue of $26 billion in 2016 (mondelezinternational.com, 2017). The annual report shows that Mondelez International has increasing rate of cumulative return in five years compared to its competitors as shown in the graph below. Situation Analysis: The situation analysis of Mondelez International Australia and New Zealand is has two parts, the macroeconomic and the SWOT analysis. The purpose of the external market is to examine the external macro environment factors which determine the strategies of the international company. The purpose of the SWOT analysis is to study the strengths, weakneeses, opportunities and threats to the company in question. Mondelez Internatioanl works in a variety of external macroeconomic environments which summarised as PESTLE below. These factors determine the competitive advantage of Mondelez International in respect to its competitors (Hautz, Mayer Stadler, 2014). The political factors refer to governments policies, laws, international agreements with countries and so on which play significant role in the company policies and strategies. Australia is a constitutional monarchy where the government controls and create trade barriers to promote domestic companies. However, the government has gradually started encourage entry of multinational companies like Mondelez. Mondelez should also abide by the free market and lower tariif policies and gain by it (aph.gov.au, 2017). Economic factors consist of those factors which effect the financing and pricing decisions of the companies like Mondelez. These factors are exchange rate, labour rates, value of land, supply chain management and so on. The international currency rates have strong bearing on the pricing strategies of the companies. The value of Australian Dollar has fallen which means that exports have become cheaper and the foreigners customers can buy more with their currencies. The experts say that the Australian manufacturers like Mondelez can export their goods more to earns high return (Beattie, 2017). Mondelez International should acquire resources sustainably and keep the pricing strategy low to gain from exporting its products to the foreign markets (Brandenburg et al., 2014). The social aspects deal with the effect of a product on the society and culture of a market like Australia. Mondelez International manufactures chocolate products with high calories which often face criticisms from various strata of the society. The Australians chocolate market is growing and Mondelez should capitalise the opportunity. The Australian society loves premium chocolate and is ready to pay high retail price for it. Hence, Mondelez should fix high retail prices for its premium chocolate products and low for regular products to generate high revenue (Nieburg, 2017). The Treasury, Government of Australia tells than the country has experienced sustainable income growth in the recent years and the rich have contributed large to the increase in national income. The growing population of the country along with the growing income encourage chocolate market (Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Government, 2017). Mondelez should market its products more in the Australia and take advantage of the rising income of the Australians to sell its products (Fletcher Guttmann, 2017). Technological: Technology refers to the level of innovation and research companies carry out to bring about new products and improve their existing products. The capacity of a company to utilise technology also determines its power to adopt sustainable means of production and operation. Mondelez is an international food manufacturer who is financially very strong and can invest in modern technology. Australia is a technologically strong country and provides its companies advanced technology and scope for innovation. The ever increasing demand and changing consumption pattern encourages modernisation and sustainable production. The food product manufacturers like Mondelez have state of art technology which helps them to create sustainable products and packaging(Gold, Kunz Reiner, 2016). Mondelez has six modern manufacturing plants in Australia which allows to company to bring about innovative products of superior quality (Lynch Jin, 2016). Culture of people has an important role to play in the consumption pattern which further impacts the demand of products. Religion, nationality, and so on play important role in the culture of people. Mondelez International manufactures chocolate products which are enjoyed by people of all cultures. The company markets its products internationally to take advantage of this demand for chocolate across cultures. The Australian people love chocolate products especially premium chocolate products. Mondelez should manufacture and market premium chocolate products and cater to the Australian market (Tan et al., 2015). The people of Australia are increasing emphasising on sustainable products and are ready to pay for them. Mondelez should market sustainable chocolate products to cater to the Australian market (Wee et al., 2014). Macroenvironmental Factors Issue Opportunity or Threat identification Information Source Political/Legal Free market and lower tariif policies Opportunity aph.gov.au, 2017 Economic Falling Australian Dollar Opportunity Beattie, 2017 Social Risisng demand for premium chocolate Opportunity Nieburg, 2017 Technological New manufacturing plants and advanced technology Opportunity Lynch Jin, 2016) Culture Love for premium chocolate products among the Australians Opportunity Tan et al., 2015 The graph shows that Cadbury by Mondelez leads the chocolate market of Australia with its two direct competitors Kit Kat by Nestle having 17% share and Mars at 9%. Their strength lies in their power to cater the needs of both the premium and low variant consumers. The two dimensions which consumers consider while making purchase are variety and available. The weakness of the competitors is their inability to produce a variety of chocolate products which Mondelez can produce. The perceptual map below show the competitors of Mondelez International, the Y axis shows wide choice and the X axis shows variety. The figure shows that Mondelez International ranks highest in the consumers minds according to the two parameters. Evaluation of the Companys Internal Capabilities and Core Competencies: Mondelez International is a multinational company catering to global consumer base. The company is present in over a hundred countries which gives it a huge competitive advantage. Product line consists of a variety of premium products. The company manufactures Cadbury which comes in both premium variants like Bournville and low priced variants. The company also owns Vegemite, Ritz, Belvita and other brands worth billions. The company is financially strong with a net revenue $26 billion in 2016. The company has acquisitions like Cadbury worth billions of dollars which has given the company its innovative product line. The product line helps the company to form a strong marketing strategy. The company follows strategic human resource management in all the location it operates in. The company is an international employer and employs people all over the world. Mondelez International Australia employs more than 2000 employees who attribute tit with itstalent and competitive advantage. Comes under criticisms due to high calorie and sugar content in the products which affects the marketing strategies of the company. Product line limited to food products. Opportunities: Expand product line towards other products like home care, electronic and so on. Introduce low calorie products like Coca Cola. Enter into organic product market by new organic chocolate products. Enter new markets Faces stiff competition from substitutes like coffee. Fcaes stiff competition from other multinational companies like Nestle and Unilever. Faces threat from new entrants in all its markets like local chocolate companies. Conclusions: The study shows that Mondelez International Australia and New Zealand is a big multinational companies which encounters various macroeconomic factors like political, economical and so on. The company is financially very strong and has a very strong product line. The products of the company dominate the market but face stiff competition from other multinational food manufacturers like Nestle. The following recommendations can be made for the companys future: Mondelez should expand its product portfolio in order to gain more competitive advantage. This will generate more revenue and better the market position of the company. The company should enter the market of the organic products and introduce organic chocolate products. This will help the company to attract more premium customers which will yield higher profit. References: 2017 Fact Sheet. (2017). mondelezinternational.com. Retrieved 28 April 2017, from https://www.mondelezinternational.com/~/media/MondelezCorporate/Uploads/downloads/mondelez_intl_fact_sheet.pdf Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Government. (2017). Abs.gov.au. Retrieved 28 April 2017, from https://www.abs.gov.au/ Beattie, D. (2017). The fall in the Aussie Dollar. Canstar. Retrieved 28 April 2017, from https://www.canstar.com.au/travel-credit-and-debit-cards/the-fall-in-the-aussie-dollar/ Brandenburg, M., Govindan, K., Sarkis, J., Seuring, S. (2014). Quantitative models for sustainable supply chain management: Developments and directions.European Journal of Operational Research,233(2), 299-312. Cadbury Bournville | Cadbury.co.uk. (2017). com. Retrieved 28 April 2017, from https://www.cadbury.co.uk/products/Bournville-2400?p=2400 Fletcher, M., Guttmann, B. (2017). Income inequality in Australia | The Treasury. Treasury.gov.au. Retrieved 28 April 2017, from https://www.treasury.gov.au/PublicationsAndMedia/Publications/2013/Economic-Roundup-Issue-2/Economic-Roundup/Income-inequality-in-Australia Gold, S., Kunz, N., Reiner, G. (2016). Sustainable global agrifood supply chains: exploring the barriers.Journal of Industrial Ecology. Hautz, J., Mayer, M., Stadler, C. (2014). Macro-competitive context and diversification: the impact of macroeconomic growth and foreign competition.Long Range Planning,47(6), 337-352. Industry Policy in Australia Parliament of Australia. (2017). Aph.gov.au. Retrieved 28 April 2017, from https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp9900/2000RP03#Intro Lynch, R., Jin, Z. (2016). Exploring the institutional perspective on international business expansion: Towards a more detailed conceptual framework.Journal of Innovation Knowledge,1(2), 117-124. More Aussies chomping on chocolate. (2017). Roy Morgan. Retrieved 28 April 2017, from https://www.roymorgan.com/findings/more-aussies-chomping-on-chocolate-201603212333 Nieburg, O. (2017). Social climbers: Aussies plump for premium chocolate. ConfectioneryNews.com. Retrieved 28 April 2017, from https://www.confectionerynews.com/Markets/Social-climbers-Aussies-plump-for-premium-chocolate Tan, H. S. G., Fischer, A. R., Tinchan, P., Stieger, M., Steenbekkers, L. P. A., van Trijp, H. C. (2015). Insects as food: exploring cultural exposure and individual experience as determinants of acceptance.Food Quality and Preference,42, 78-89. Wee, C. S., Ariff, M. S. B. M., Zakuan, N., Tajudin, M. N. M., Ismail, K., Ishak, N. (2014). Consumers perception, purchase intention and actual purchase behavior of organic food products.Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research,3(2), 378.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Maslow And Dostoyevski Maslow suggested that a person lacking food, love, and self esteem would most likely hunger for food the most. Yet on the other hand the novelist Dostoyeski viewed this issue in an entirely different matter. He wrote that without a firm idea of himself and the purpose of his life, man cannot live even if surrounded with bread. These are two very debatable points in which may be argued upon for years. First of all, I would like to share my view of this issue as a whole. I believe the point that the novelist Dostoyeski made, (that a good life is more cravable than food,) is more likely to be true in most matters. The reason I think this way is because I couldn`t see myself not having a plan on what to do next in life. I always have to have an idea in mind about what is going to come up next in my life or I will have a horrible feeling of unsecureness and probably not be a very stable person. A good example of this is college. I have know clue what I want to be in life but I am sure that in a couple years down the road from now I will be studying hard in college working on a future career. Knowing this always makes me feel good about myself. Furthermore, I always have to know were I stand whether it be in a popularity status, school status, or even a family one! With out a firm idea of those issues I would probably go crazy and not even know what the word food meant. So in conclusion to Destoyeski quote, I believe that everyone has a place and a purpose in life, yet if a person doesn`t know were they stand or their purpose in life who are they And this is why I believe that knowing yourself, your standards, and goals is more important critically speaking because without those all you would have in your life is food! Secondly I would like to lay a few points down on why I believe Maslow`s point is less valuable than Dostoyevski. I believe that Maslows point is to be more literally taken. Without food of course we can not survive. Hunger is a natural instinct and our mind just automatically says to us, you must eat, and gives you a strong feeling of hunger. Knowing were you are going in life, were you stand, and who you are, is very important because not knowing were you are going in life, were you stand, and who you are, will leave you with just one thing. (FOOD) So in conclusion to the two issues I wrote about, I strongly have to go with Dostoyevski`s point just because life is all about going places, even if it is just going out onto the street and living as a bum. Allot of people set goals yet never quite accomplish them. That doesn`t mean their life is meaning less, it just shows that their life is lacking motivation. And so that is why I think a meaning less life would be a lot worse than starvation.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
The tourism industry in Kenya Paper The local people were denied an opportunity to make their contributions towards wildlife conservation and management as they were kept off protected areas. There was initially a lukewarm acceptance of the policy guideline that Kenya had an obligation of protecting the countrys fauna and flora for posterity by the local communities in whose areas the attractions abound. Equally, educational approaches and extension efforts were not very successful as the local communities were not benefitting directly from those resources within their areas.Empirical research however, indicated that direct sharing of benefits accruing from wildlife conservation and tourism were better appreciated by the local communities. These inadequacies which were inherent in the conservation policies of the 1970s thus led to the current concept of sustainable wildlife utilisation whereby economic sense and the utility of the product superseeds other considerations and in the process ensuring that the resource is managed on a rational and sustainable basis.The concept entails optimum resource management, efficiency in productivity as well as equitable sharing of the benefits. The Kenya Government, through its conservation arm, the Kenya Wildlife Service has put in place measures that ensure co-opting the support and participation of land owners in the management of wildlife. This involves sensitization, mobilization as well as education of the stakeholders.The Kenya Wildlife Service has also put in place appropriate measures which are aimed at capacity building by the relevant institutions in order that all the stakeholders become competent wildlife managers with adequate knowledge and skills regarding the contrib ution of wildlife visa-a-vis such alternative land uses as livestock keeping and agriculture. Optimum or sustainable consumptive wildlife utilisation therefore may only be achieved after area specific feasibility studies are carried out to determine its viability and compatibility with non-consumptive uses.Another important consideration is the sensitivity to the disparity in culture, ecology, and topography in the context of changing technology pertaining to game cropping, culling, game ranching, game farming and sale of live animals . The concept also entails accommodation of public interest without necessarily compromising private and community interests. COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIP IN THE STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN KENYA The rich cultural diversity is an integral part of our tourist attractions since it is one of the main reasons why visitors travel to the outlying rural areas of Kenya.This product is therefore being developed and promoted as this type o f tourism can strengthen a societys culture and create employment at local levels thereby serving as an incentive for young people to stay in rural areas rather than migrate to urban areas in search of employment. It is with the foregoing in mind that made it necessary that sustainable tourism development be based on the ethics of care and respect for the respective communities culture. This approach ensures that the development is both people oriented as well as conservation based.Sustainable tourism in other words, means, using tourism constructively so as to support the conservation of the environment, reinforcing the cultural heritage of indigenous people as well as enabling them to benefit directly from revenue accruing from tourism and related activities. Kenya as a tourist destination has therefore adopted and encouraged sustainable tourism strategies in order to strike a balance between the needs of the industry and those of the local communities.Accordingly it has been foun d necessary to find ways and means of ploughing back the benefits accruing from tourism to the development of the local population. The main consideration here is to improve their living conditions, security, and their access to social services. Hence the important issues being addressed in this context include:- reducing vulnerability of exploitation of local communities by unscrupulous people and How to enhance retention of income accruing from tourism by the local communities so as to plough back into community based development projects.FUNDING OF THE KENYA WILDLIFE SERVICE COMMUNITY BASED CONSERVATION EFFORTS Apart from core financing and moral support from the Central Government; community based conservation effort in Kenya has also benefitted from donor funding and private initiatives. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID). For instance in 1992, contracted with an American (U. S. ) consulting company, namely Development Alternatives, Inc. for the impl ementation of the Kenya Wildlife Serrvices Conservation of Biodiverse Resource Areas Project (COBRA) for a maximum investment by USAID of US$7,000,000.The amount has since been raised to US$8,500,000 and the time frame of the project has also been extended up to December, 1999. The goal of the COBRA project is to promote Socio-economic development through conservation and sustainable management of Kenyas natural resources. The main objective is to increase the flow of socio-economic benefits to local communities living adjacent to Kenyas National Parks and Reserves through the sustainable management of wildlife and other natural resources.This project has assisted in enhancing community awareness in conservation and wildlife management. The Conservation of Biodiverse Resource Areas Project (COBRA) has assisted the Kenya Wildlife Service in institutionalising a community based conservation component namely the Partnership Department, within the Organisation through the provision of s alary support to professional staff, training of lower cadres and procurement of vehicles, computers, and the necessary field equipment.The COBRA project has also assisted in the implementation of pilot community conservation programmes in three focal Districts; namely Laikipia, Samburu and Kajiado since 1993 as well as the coastal areas South of Mombasa. Although the COBRA project has assisted communities in the planning and implementation of community based development projects such as the construction of schools, clinics, water tanks among others, the projects main thrust since 1995 has been focused on the support of enterprises related to eco-tourism, which depend directly on wildlife.ALTERNATIVE FUNDING: PRIVATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP/ PARTNERSHIP APPROACH A CASE STUDY: LEWA DOWNS CONSERVANCY/ IL NGWESI The Lewa Downs Conservancy was formed to manage 55,000 acres of prime wildlife land for the purpose of protecting such endangered species as black Rhino and grevy Zebra, to establish Wildlife as a viable form of land use as well as to encourage the neighbouring land owners maintain wildlife migration routes. The conservancy has emphasized community involvement by the neighbouring land-owners.The projects include:- the development and operation of a health clinic, the establishment of community trust aimed at improving the standards of living of those juxtaposing the conservancy and assisting with the support of two community based wildlife trusts whose prime objectives are to use wildlife as a resource to generate money for people in neighbouring communities. A unique relationship was created between the Lewa Downs Conservancy and the IL NGWESI TOURIST LODGE, an income generating project, with a view to forming an ideal eco-tourism system.The IL Ngwesi Tourist Lodge which is located on Il Ngwesi Group Ranch (in North Eastern Laikipia) was built with Donor funding for the benefit of both visitors to Lewa Downs Conservancy and Borana ranch. The lodge has four ban das of unique architecture which are situated on an ideal site that overlooks the Mukogodo Escarpment and forest to the south and southwest and the picturesque hills of Wamba, Samburu Game Reserve, Mathews range and Sapashe to the North west. Natural materials have been used to construct the Bandas in order to blend with the environment thus making it an attractive eco-lodge.Construction of the lodge started in January 1996 and opened its doors to tourists on 19th December 1996. As of November 1997, it had grossed US$ 42,000 against an investment of US$ 140,000. The initial funding came from the Kenya Wildlife Service; and from Liz Clairborne and Art Ortenbury Foundations of U. S. A. The marketing and promotion of the lodge has been by word of mouth, but nevertheless the lodge has attracted a very enthusiastic clientele of expatriates living in Nairobi who are out to seek quietude and adventure in the in the African bush.To diversify activities, a cultural boma has been opened and i s visited by tourists from the lodge, Borana Ranch and the Lewa conservancy. Proceeds from the lodge are re-invested in community based development projects such as schools, cattle dips, water, bursary schemes and the group ranch members share dividends at the end of each year. The community formed a land management committee that limits the land to be set a side for cattle ranching.The losses incurred as a result of limited land for ranching are offset by revenues generating from the operations of the lodge and annual dividends. The Kenya Wildlife Service sensitizes and mobilizes the community through Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRAs), workshops, study tours and training of committee members on leadership and record keeping, as well as training scouts from the community. A general meeting is held each year to discuss the utilisation of funds realised from the bandas. Nearly all employees of the Il Ngwesi Bandas are members of the community.The Bandas thus have shown that the co mmunity based wildlife conservation projects can raise income and has also demonstrated the utility of the local natural resources. The enterprise has positively changed the attitude of the group ranch members towards wildlife conservation. This is a typical success story of an eco-tourism enterprise that has created direct linkages between conservation of the community land and tourism related wildlife projects by providing a focus for the community to preserve the environment and the rationale to do it.The tripartite co-operation between Lewa Downs conservancy, the community and the Kenya Wildlife Service partnership programme has created a model worth emulating in the development of sustainable tourism and distribution of benefits, especially in communities based in remote areas of Kenya. Il Ngwesi is a model product which is essentially a major departure from the Big Five syndrome that has been a driving force for our Safari visitors. It is important to note from this model the low cost capital out lay as compared to the unique compatibility of the projects and the distribution of the accrued benefits to the local communities.The Eco tourism Society of Kenya endeavours to help promote tourism in Kenya by projecting a positive image and encouraging high standards, green certification, carrying out consumer surveys offering consultancy services, advice and information, public information, public relations, organizing conferences and seminars, publishing appropriate newsletters, brochures and books as well as conducting research. DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM INDUSTRY WITHIN AFRICA REGIONDestinations in Africa enjoy a privileged position in relation to the major tourist generating markets due mainly to their unique features, history as well as a wide range of products on offer. The strong awareness for conservation of the environment and the demand for exoticism by potential travellers translates into increasing demand by an ever growing number of foreign visitors. Accordingly there is need for destinations in Africa to co-operate more closely in areas of product development, research, manpower development and training as well as exchange of tourism experts and tourism information.It is also necessary to harmonise travel formalities within the region so as to encourage free flow of visitors and maximisation of benefits accruing from tourism interactions within the region. Indeed such close co-operation can be forged and enhanced within the framework of the existing regional economic groupings such as the Common market for Eastern and Southern Africa(Comesa), Preferential Trade Area (PTA), Sadacc, East Africa Co-operation, Indian Ocean rim association for regional co-operation.These economic groupings can play a pivotal role in positioning Africa to be a major force in the envisaged tourism growth. In the development, promotion and marketing of our respective destinations we should always bear in mind the complementary nature of our products wi thin the region. Secondly although by and large the countries within the region are destination countries rather than tourist generating countries, there is a vast market for intra-regional tourism, which has not yet been fully tapped.This observation holds true for example for both the Republic of South Africa and Kenya, which incidentally share a lot in common. However the free flow of visitors from each country has been hampered by among others, travel formalities and failure to capitalise on our complementality. CONCLUSION Most of Africas Eco-system still remain intact and unspoiled thus providing a strong basis for a sustainable tourism development. All that is required proper planning and management of the available resources. It should be born in mind that sustainable tourism cannot thrive if we do not take care of our fragile environment.In this context, therefore, we should always remember the cardinal point that we all have a duty to practice responsible tourism so that at the end of the day we shall be able to conserve our fragile environment and biodiversity for the benefit of mankind. To this end there is therefore, an urgent need to put the necessary legislations and codes of conduct in place so as to ensure balanced development of tourism in African tourist destinations. Exchange of information and experience among African National would also be vital in achieving the requisite results for the development of sustainable tourism in conservation of the environment. We will write a custom essay sample on The tourism industry in Kenya specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The tourism industry in Kenya specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The tourism industry in Kenya specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Gilligan's Ethics of Care Psychologist Carol Gilligan is best known for her innovative but controversial ideas on the moral development of women. Gilligan emphasized what she called an Ã¢â¬Å"ethics of careÃ¢â¬ in womens moral reasoning. She placed her approach in direct opposition to Lawrence KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of moral development, which she claimed was biased against females and emphasized an Ã¢â¬Å"ethics of justice.Ã¢â¬ Key Takeaways: Gilligan's Ethics of Care Carol Gilligan believed womenÃ¢â¬â¢s morality arose from real-life dilemmas, not hypothetical ones. She came up with three stages of moral development that emphasize an ethics of care.Pre-conventional stage: women are focused on the self.Conventional stage: women have come to focus on their responsibilities towards others. Post-conventional stage: a woman has learned to see herself and others as interdependent. Gilligan developed her thinking in response to the stages of moral development outlined by Lawrence Kohlberg, which Gilligan claimed were gender-biased and emphasized an ethics of justice. However, research by other scholars has shown that two moral orientations exist- one towards care and one towards justice. Origin of GilliganÃ¢â¬â¢s Ethics of Care In 1967, a few years after receiving her Ph.D. from Harvard, Gilligan started a teaching position there. She also became a research assistant for Lawrence Kohlberg, who developed a popular theory of moral development. GilliganÃ¢â¬â¢s work was a response to the gender bias she saw in KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s approach.Ã KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of moral development included six stages. At its highest stage, an individual develops a deeply held, self-defined set of moral principles that one wishes to apply equally to all people. Kohlberg cautioned that not everyone would reach this sixth stage of moral development. In subsequent studies, he found that women tended to score at lower stages of moral development than men. However, Gilligan pointed out that the research Kohlberg did to develop his stage theory only included young white male participants. As a result, Gilligan argued that men werent morally superior to women. Instead, the reason women scored lower in KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s stages than men was that KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s work discounted the voices of women and girls. She outlined this position in detail in her seminal book In a Different Voice, which she published in 1982. Gilligan decided to study the development of moral reasoning in women herself and found that women thought about morality differently than men. Men, as exemplified by KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, tend to look at morality through a lens of rights, laws, and universally applied principles. This Ã¢â¬Å"ethics of justiceÃ¢â¬ has traditionally been viewed as an ideal in patriarchal Western cultures because it is championed by men. However, women tend to look at morality through a lens of relationships, compassion, and responsibility to others. This Ã¢â¬Å"ethics of careÃ¢â¬ has often been overlooked because of the limited power women have typically held in Western societies. Gilligan illustrated this difference in the moral reasoning of males and females by articulating the thinking of a boy and a girl participants responses to the Ã¢â¬Å"Heinz dilemmaÃ¢â¬ from KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s studies. In this dilemma, a man named Heinz must choose whether or not to steal medicine he canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to save the life of his dying wife. The boy participant believes Heinz should take the medicine because the right to life is more important than the right to property. On the other hand, the girl participant doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe Heinz should take the medicine because it could land him in jail for stealing, leaving his wife alone when she needs him. As this example demonstrates, the ethics of justice is impartial. Principles must always be applied in the same way, even if that means it negatively impacts the individual or someone theyÃ¢â¬â¢re close to. On the other hand, the ethics of care is contextual. Morality isnÃ¢â¬â¢t based on abstract principles but on real relationships. Given these gender differences, Gilligan proposed that women donÃ¢â¬â¢t stop developing morally at lower levels than men, but that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s moral development simply continues along a different trajectory than the ethics of justice measured by KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s scale. GilliganÃ¢â¬â¢s Stages of Moral Development Gilligan outlined her own stages of moral development based on an ethics of care. She used the same levels Kohlberg did but based her stages on interviews with women. Specifically, because Gilligan believed womenÃ¢â¬â¢s morality arose from real-life dilemmas, not hypothetical ones, she interviewed women trying to decide whether or not to terminate a pregnancy. Her work yielded the following stages:Ã Stage 1: Pre-Conventional At the pre-conventional stage, women are focused on the self and emphasize their own self-interests over other considerations. Stage 2: Conventional At the conventional stage, women have come to focus on their responsibilities towards others. They are concerned with care for others and being selfless, but this position is defined by society or other people in the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s orbit. Stage 3: Post-Conventional At the highest stage of moral development, the post-conventional stage, a woman has learned to see herself and others as interdependent. These women have control of their lives and take responsibility for their decisions, a big part of which is the choice to care for others. Gilligan said that some women may not reach the highest stage of moral development. In addition, she didnt attach specific ages to her stages. However, she did claim that it wasnt experience that drove a woman through the stages, but cognitive ability and the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s evolving sense of self. Can the Ethics of Care Extend to Men? While the ethics of care was developed based on research with women, Gilligan has insisted that the ethics of care and the ethics of justice arenÃ¢â¬â¢t mutually exclusive. Instead of focusing on gender, Gilligan preferred to focus on the different themes brought up by these two perspectives on morality. Although this meant that men could develop an ethics of care, Gilligan indicated it was likely more common in women. Research by other scholars has backed up some of GilliganÃ¢â¬â¢s assertions. On the one hand, studies have indicated that the gender differences on KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s stages arenÃ¢â¬â¢t especially pronounced, suggesting that there may not be a strong gender-bias in KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s work. On the other, studies have shown that people have two moral orientations that line up with GilliganÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics of justice and ethics of care. And studies have found that the moral orientation towards care is stronger in females. Thus, while both men and women can and will develop both orientations, one may be more influential in men than in women and vice versa. Furthermore, research suggests that as people age and reach the highest stages of moral development, the two orientations may be more equally represented in the individual, regardless of gender. Critiques Despite the evidence for some of GilliganÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas, they have also been criticized for a number of reasons. One critique states that GilliganÃ¢â¬â¢s observations are the result of societal expectations of gender rather than differences that naturally arise from gender. Thus, if societal expectations were different, the moral orientations of males and females would also be different. In addition, feminist psychologists are divided over GilliganÃ¢â¬â¢s work. While some have praised it, some have criticized it for reinforcing traditional notions of femininity that could continue to lock women into care-giver roles. Feminists have also pointed out that women are not a monolith. They argue that GilliganÃ¢â¬â¢s work makes womenÃ¢â¬â¢s voices seem homogenous, while denying their nuance and diversity. Sources Bell, Laura. Profile of Carol Gilligan. Psychologys Feminist Voices Multimedia Internet Archive. feministvoices.com/carol-gilligan/Ã¢â¬Å"Carol Gilligan Moral Development Theory Explained.Ã¢â¬ Health Research Funding. https://healthresearchfunding.org/carol-gilligan-moral-development-theory-explained/Crain, William. Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications. 5th ed., Pearson Prentice Hall. 2005.Ã¢â¬Å"Ethics of Care.Ã¢â¬ New World Encyclopedia. 15 August 2017. https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Ethics_of_careGoodTherapy. Ã¢â¬Å"Carol Gilligan.Ã¢â¬ 8 July 2015. https://www.goodtherapy.org/famous-psychologists/carol-gilligan.htmlSander-Staudt, Maureen. Ã¢â¬Å"Care Ethics.Ã¢â¬ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/#SH1aWilkinson, Sue. Ã¢â¬Å"Feminist Psychology.Ã¢â¬ Critical Personality: An Introduction, edited by Dennis Fox and Isaac Prilleltensky, SAGE, 1997, pp. 247-264.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Managerial Economics - Disney World - Case Study Example Soon, competition came up and Disneyland started to lose its market. Same tragedy with Disney World too! Though main objective of it is to regain the market, along with it several other parks like Universal Studios, SeaWorld, and Discovery Cove etc. came into existence offering various amusements facilities. Major attraction of Universal Studios are shows and ride whereas, SeaWorld is a chain of marine mammal parks. Discovery Cove gives the opportunity to the guests to interact more closely with mammal animals. Apart from those, Kennedy Space Center provides the unique chance to tour NASA's launch and landing facilities. Disney World paved the way for the other theme parks and made the Orlando a popular tourist place for entertainment. It's true that after the introduction of other parks, market of Disney has slowed down somewhat but, it has another important goal too, and that is recreation which has direct relation with business profit. From amusement perspective all are working in hand to keep Orlando livelier and brighter and so, to Disney World too. Today attendance of each Disneyland is varying from 10,000,000 to 20,000,000. Starbucks cafes have given coffee a new cachet and their success has helped all the coffee distributors in United States. A chain of innovation has been set by Starbucks' creativity in once sleepy industry.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Management of information technology Bachelor - Essay Example And the study also mainly analyses the reality behind the privacy issue of the consumer. The study also concentrates on the supporting guidelines and practices in use for sustainable management to prevent the privacy concerns with RFID. RFID enables not only automatic supply chain data collection to improve inventory visibility and reduce stock outs at the retail level, it can also result in reduced need for manual handling, labor cost reductions, greater accuracy of shipments, and other benefits, (arcweb) RFID solutions provide real-time information by automatically detecting product movements throughout the distribution process. RFID technology provides real-time inventory visibility while minimizing the need for manual checks, allowing to: - The key to success in the retail RFID market depends on optimizing hardware, software and middleware roles and providing one-stop complete suites or solutions, which facilitate easy integration across the three domains," Shyam While RFID is reaching retailers across the revenue barrier, the high level of investment allows only the biggest retailers (typically $5 billion and above in revenues) to pilot and roll out the RFID technology in their stores and distribution centers, Shyam. The concepts of Distribution chain and logistics are closely connected in the context of raw materials, manufacturers, transporters, warehouses, retailers, and the customers themselves. The functions include the flow of information, and the transformation and delivery of goods from raw material stage through to the end user (Handfield and Nichols 1999 p. 2; Chopra and Meindl 2001, p. 3). Significant factors that determine the success of a supply chain and distribution outlets include process integration among the suppliers and
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Newspaper D1 - Assignment Example According to Yuan (2010), the Chinese and American employees are employing a range of strategies to address the conflicting dilemmas. The main issues faced are the differing business etiquettes, corporate culture and employment benefits. Some of the problems encountered by the workforce are integrating with the colleagues, compelling the implementation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s recommended solution, making decisions by power, dominating among the team members, avoiding discussion of issues, relationship dissolution and third-party process. Moreover, the Americans are willing to confront the conflict rather than the Chinese people who try to avoid them. In order to understand the conflict, it is better to apply the human psychology concept. The idea behind this framework is that each individual has to be understood so that the personal attributes are evident and it will allow the person to utilise his capabilities efficiently in resolving the conflict. Due to globalisation and strengthening of international business avenues, the intercultural business conflicts will have to be minimised so that the desired organisational objectives can be successfully
Friday, November 15, 2019
Preformulation Testing for Chemical Properties of Drug PREFORMULATION STUDIES Preformulation testing involved investigation of physical and chemical properties of a drug substance alone and when combined with excipients. It was the first step in the rational development of dosage forms. These studies are categorised as under: 1. API characterization 2. Drug-Excipient Compatibility study API Characterization Organoleptic Evaluation These are preliminary characteristics of any substance which is useful in identification of specific material. Following physical properties of API were studied. a) Colour b) Odour Table no. : Characterization of API Test Observation Colour White Odour Odourless Particle size distribution Sieve analysis: The sieve analysis main concept is to know the different drug particles size in the sample. The standard sieves with larger pore size i.e., with less sieve number on the top position are placed one over the other and followed by sieves of decreasing pore size i.e., with larger sieve number towards the bottom. Procedure: Clean and dried sieves #40,#60,#80,#100,#120 and bottom meshes were collected Individual weight of each sieve was noted. These sieves were arranged in ascending order. Weighed quantity of API was placed in #40 meshes. Sieve shaker was set for 5 min at amplitude of 60. Remove the setup from sieve shaker after 5minutes. Each mesh was weighed individually and Calculate % retained in each size of mesh with following formula: % retained = Final weight Ã¢â¬â initial weight x 100 Total weight taken Table no. : Particle size distribution of API Sieve number Percentage of sample retained (%) Cumulative percentage of sample retained (%) 40 3.0 3.0 60 19.2 22.2 80 26.3 48.5 100 24.2 72.7 140 8.1 80.8 200 19.2 100.0 pH-Solubility Profile: The solubility studies for the drug were carried out using the orbital shaker. Solubility of the drug across different buffers was studied. The pH ranged from 1.2 to 6.8 (1.2 , 4.5, 6.8, and water). All the buffers were prepared according to USP 34 NF 29, 2011. Excess drug was added to 100 ml of water in stoppered conical flasks and were agitated continuously in a orbital shaker for 24 hrs at 200 rpm and room temperature (25Ã ° C), till saturation was observed. Then, the samples were filtered using 0.45 Ã µ Nylon (47 mm) syringe filters. Now the filtered samples were analyzed using UV spectrophotometer Table No.6.3 below describes the procedure of buffers preparation. Table 6.5 preparation of buffers Buffer Procedure PH 1.2 buffer 8.5 ml of Conc. HCL was added to 1000 mL volumetric flask. Then it was diluted and made up to volume with water PH 4.5 phosphate buffer 13.61 gm of KH2PO4 was added to 1000 mlvolumetric flask. Then it was made up to volumewith water PH 6.8 phosphate buffer 250 mL of 0.2 M monobasic potassium phosphate solution was taken in a 1000 mL volumetric flask. Then 112 mL 0.2M Sodium hydroxide solution was added to it and water was added to make up to the volume Table7.3 Solubility of API in buffers of different pHs PH Solubility(mg/ml) 1.2 42.36 4.5 44.96 6.8 0.80 Water 0.674 Fig 7.1 pH Solubility curve of API Drug excipient compatibility study There is always possibility of Drug excipient interaction in any formulation due to their intimate contact. It is also necessary to determine any possible interaction between excipients used in the formulation. This will also indicate success of stability studies. Preliminary studies: Method: Physical observation Condition: 40 Ã ±2 o C and 75 Ã ± 5% RH Procedure: Drug was mixed with excipients in 1: 1 ratios as indicated in the Table 6.6 These mixtures were kept in a 5ml glass vials and packed properly. In dry close method glass vials are closed with rubber stoppers These vials are exposed to 25Ãâ¹Ã ¡C /60 % RH 40Ãâ¹Ã ¡C /75 % RH. Blend (1gm) was prepared and filled in vials. Observations for physical appearance were made at the end 4 weeks. S.No EXCIPIENTS DRUG: EXCIPIENT RATIO 1 Polyethyleneoxide 1:1 2 HPMCK100M 1:1 3 MCC 1:1 4 Cellulose acetate 1:1 5 Sodiumchloride 1:1 6 Citric acid 1:1 7 Sodium lauryl sulphate 1:1 8 Magnesium stearate 1:1 9 Talc 1:1 Table 7.4 Results of Drug-Excipient compatibility at 25oC/60% RH S.no: Excipent Colour change Lumps Caking O C O C O C 1 Polyethylene oxide X X X X X X 2 HPMC X X X X X X 3 MCC X X X X X X 4 Cellulose acetate X X X X X X 5 Sodium chloride X X Lumps observed X X X 6 Citric acid X X Lumps observed X X X 7 Sodium lauryl sulphate X X Lumps observed X X X 7 Magnesium stearate X X X X X X 8 Talc X X X X X X Note: x Ã¢â¬â indicates no change, O- open condition ,C- close condition Table 7.5 Results of Drug-Excipient compatibility at 40oC / 75% RH S.no: Excipient Colour change Lumps Caking O C O C O C 1 Poly ethylene oxide X X X X X X 2 HPMC X X X X X X 3 MCC X X X X X X 4 Cellulose acetate X X X X X X 5 Sodium chloride X X X X Caking observed X 6 Citric acid X X X X Caking Observed X 7 Sodium lauryl sulphate X X X X Caking observed X 8 Magnesium stearate X X X X X X 9 Talc X X X X X X FTIR Study FTIR study: FTIR studies were carried out for pure drug alone and blend of drug excepients. The FTIR spectroscopy (BRUKER Optics FTIR spectrophotometer) is employed as analytical tool to check the drug-excepients interaction, using the KBr disc method. The FTIR spectra were scanned and recorded between 400 and 4000 cm-1 Method: Nearly to a fine alkali halide (example KBr) powder of 200 to 250 mg 0.1 to 1.0 % sample is mixed well. Later it is pulverized and in a pellet-forming die it is placed. Around an 8 tons force under a vacuum of several mm Hg is applied to form transparent pellets. FTIR spectroscopy of pure drug of Famotidine S.no Type of vibration Actual frequency (cm-1) Observed frequency (cm-1) Confirmation Table no. : Interpretation of FTIR spectra of pure famotidine FTIR spectroscopy of drug and excipient blends Table 7.6 Peaks of FTIR study Peaks ( cm Ã¢â¬â1) Functional groups 3506.13 Ã¢â¬âOH 3377.41-3400.95 Ã¢â¬âNH2 3238.03 -NH 1445.38- 1639.22 C=N 689.10 -606.6 C-S 1320.81 S(=O) 2 asymmetric stretching 1147.17 S(=O) 2 symmetric stretching Table no. : Interpretation of FTIR spectra of pure famotidine S.no Type of vibration Actual frequency (cm-1) Observed frequency (cm-1) Confirmation ANALYTICAL METHOD ESTIMATION OF FAMOTIDINE: A solution of Famotidine was prepared in 0.1 N HCl and Phosphate buffer pH 4.5and 6.8 UV spectrum was taken using Perkin Elmer UV/Vis double beam spectrophotometer.The UV maxima of Famotidine was found to be 265 nm in both 0.1N HCl pH 4.5. In pH 6.8 it was found to be 268 nm Preparation of standard curve of famotidine in 0.1N HCL pH 4.5 phosphate buffer: 100 mg Famotidine each was dissolved in 0.1 N HCl and pH 4.5 buffer and volume is made up to 100 with respective buffer. 10 mL of stock solution (1mg/ml) was further diluted upto 100 ml with respective buffer to obtained solution of 100 Ã µg/mL.Now from stock 2 further dilutions were done with respective buffer to obtain solutions of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Ã µg/ml Absorbance of each solution was measured at 265 nm using Perkin Elmer UV/Vis double beam Spectrophotometer. Preparation of standard curve in ph 6.8 phosphate buffer: 10 mg Famotidine each was dissolved in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer and volume is made up to 100 ml to obtain solution of 100 Ã µg/ml. Now from this stock solution further dilutions were done with PH 6.8 to obtain solutions of 10 , 20 , 30 and 40 Ã µg/ml Absorbance of each solution was measured at 268 nm using Perkin Elmer UV/Vis double beam Spectrophotometer. The experiment was performed in triplicate and based on average absorbance; the equation for the best line was generated. The results of standard curve prepared in pH 1.2, 4.5 6.8 were shown below Table 7.7 Standard curve of API in PH 1.2 , 4.5 6.8 buffers Concentration Absorbance in pH 1.2 Absorbance in pH 4.5 Absorbance in pH 6.8 2 0.085 0.082 4 0.141 0.148 5 0.189 0.186 10 0.333 0.341 0.251 15 0.510 0.497 20 0.701 0.651 0.467 25 0.852 0.806 30 0.746 40 0.989 FIG 7.4 standard curve at PH 1.2 Buffer Fig 7.5 standard curve at PH 4.5 Buffer Fig 7.6 standard curve at PH 6.8 Buffer Calculation of initial dose and maintenance dose for the design of elementary osmotic pump of famotidine for 12 hours: There are no sustained release formulations for famotidine in the market, hence the total dose (DT) consisting of initial (DI) and maintenance doses (DM) for formulating the famotidine sustained release was calculated as per Robinson and Eriksen equation with a zero order release principle36 . In this profile the rate of delivery is independent of the amount of drug remaining in the dosage form and constant over time as shown by the Eq. 6.1 Drug availability rate k0 = Rate in = Rate out Eq. 6.1 Where, k0 is the zero order rate constant for drug release (amount per time). DI is required to give initial rapid release of drug so as to attain the minimum therapeutic level immediately after dosing. Inital dose (DI) = CSSAVG Vd Eq. 6.2 F Where, C ssavg is the average steady state plasma level, V d is the volume of distribution and F is the fraction of dose absorbed. k0 = DIKel Eq. 6.3 Where, Kel is overall first order drug elimination rate constant (per hour). Hence k 0 should be equal to the elimination rate constant so as to maintain the steady state condition. In general the total dose required (D T) is the sum of maintenance dose (DM) and the initial dose (DI) DT = D I + D M Eq. 6.4 In practice, D M (mg) is released over a period of time and is equal to the product of H (the number of hours for which sustained action is desired after initial dose) and the zero order rate constant, k0 (mg/hr). Therefore the Eq. 6.4 can be expressed as DT = D I + k0H Eq. 6.5 Ideally the maintenance dose (DM) is released after DI has produced a minimum therapeutic blood level of the drug. However due to the limits of formulations, drug release even starts from DM also from the beginning i.e. at t=0, thus increasing the initial drug level in the blood. Hence it is necessary to reduce the initial dose of the drug to account for the excess release for drug from DM by using a correction factor, k0tp. This correction factor is the amount of drug provided by DM during the period from t=0 to the time of the peak drug level, tp. The corrected initial dose (DI*) becomes DI-(k0tp). Then the total dose is DT = DI* + k0H = (D I k0tp) + k0H Eq. 6.6 Pharmacokinetic parameters of famotidine: Elimination half life (t1/2) of famotidine is 3 hrs (average of 2.5 to 3.5 hrs), the time to reach peak plasma (t p) is 3 hrs and Vd = 80.5 L and F = 0.4 54,55 . From the literature of the PEPCID (innovator product of famotidine in USA) label and pharmacological review information 49,, it was found that the plasma levels after multiple doses are similar to those after single doses indicating the C max is similar to Cssavg , therefore Cmax of 0.07 mg/L was taken as C ssavg . Calculation of D I and DM: The initial dose (DI), corrected initial dose (DI*), maintenance dose (DM) and total dose (DT) were calculated according to calculations described above. Calculation of elimination rate constant: Elimination rate constant (K el ) = 0.693/t 1/2 = 0.693/3 = 0.231 hr -1 Calculation of initial dose: Inital dose (DI) = CSSAVG Vd Eq. 6.2 F = (0.07 X 80.5)/0.4 = 14.0875 mg Calculation of desired input rate (k 0): Desired input rate from maintenance dose (k 0) = DIKel = 14.0875 X 0.231 = 3.25 mg/hr Calculation of maintenance dose: Maintenance dose (DM) = k0H (Since, H = the number of hours for which sustained action is desired after initial dose = (12-1) = 11 hrs) = 3.25 X 11 = 35.796 mg Calculation of corrected initial dose DI*: DI* = DI Ã¢â¬â (k0tp) = 14.087 Ã¢â¬â (3.25 X 3 ) = 4.93 mg Calculation of total dose: Total dose (D T) = D I* + D M = 4.93 + 35.796 = 40.726 mg From the above calculations the total dose obtained for sustained release of famotidine for 12 hrs is 40.726 mg. The total dose was rounded off to 40mg for the convenience. Initially the dosage form should release the total initial dose (i.e. 4.93 mg ~ 5.0 of drug, means 11% of total 50 mg dose) in the first 1 hr followed by maintenance dose (i.e. 40-5=35 mg of drug) for up to 12 hrs there after at a release rate of 3.25 mg/hr (i.e. 8.125% of total 40 mg dose). Based on these assumptions the theoretical release profile was predicted and shown Table 6.7 Predicted theoretical release profile Time (hrs) % CDD 1 11.4 2 19.425 3 27.45 4 35.475 5 43.5 6 51.525 7 59.55 8 67.575 10 83.625 12 99.675 JNTUA-OTRI, Ananthapuramu 1
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Recently, I had the opportunity to be a Ã¢â¬Å"Presidential ClassroomÃ¢â¬ student in which I attending a two week forum in Washington D.C. While there, I was awarded the opportunity to meet with a multitude of public officials and to discuss domestic and foreign policy with students from across the nation. While in Washington D.C., it is clear the city has not forgotten its history as images of past presidents adorn many walls. When looking at the pictures past presidents, there is one president who does not appear as prominently as other. That president is Lyndon B. Johnson, a former president whose legacy influences me a great deal. Johnson was one of the most care-giving of all the presidents as his Great Society concept provided a variety of social programs with the intention of eliminating wide scale poverty in the United States. Sadly, President JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s original plans for the Great Society were curtailed by the escalation of the Vietnam War, but several aspects of the Great Society did survive and remain helpful to many people in the United States to this very day. This is among the noblest goal that a president could seek and remains a goal that resonates a great deal with me today and had so in the past as it guided me on my academic and scholastic path. In my senior year, I served as one of the 12 International Ambassadors at Poly High School. The purpose of the Ambassadors is to represent the various ethnic groups at the school. This was the most prestigious of the school civics positions and is reserved for members of the senior class who have achieved high academic standards and a willingness to represent the needs of the numerous groups that make up the student body. Again, Lyndon Johnson remained a major influence on me as I served in this position. When Johnson first entered congress, he sought to fairly represent the poor Texas towns that sent him to Washington as a representative. Often times, the needs of the people in poor, rural Texas towns were often neglected. This was not because there Admission Essay was anything set in place to exclude these people; it was that they did not have any providing a voice for them. Johnson eschewed seeking the interests of the big money lobbies and stuck to his convictions and early promises. Johnson drove a great deal of legislation through congress that aided these people and, when elected to the office of the president, Johnson used a great deal of his experience helping people in the rural town to successfully draft the famous Civil Rights Act of 1964. As an International Ambassador, it was easy to see how certain voices could be overlooked. When reading about Lyndon JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s successful exploits serving his constituency, I was inspired by the fact that he showed a voice could be heard if there is effective help. Many students have serious concerns, but are either unaware of as to how to have their voice heard or are too intimidated to initiate a dialogue. Considering that President Johnson provided a voice for the many people, I would frequently review his past deeds as a way of understanding the skills required to perform such tasks. As such, President Johnson was then and remains today, a huge influence on my life.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Since I stopped devouring books and using the computer much (because reading triggers migraines), IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been bored. I hate being bored. Every hands-on craft I try causes wrist pain that I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been able to conquer. Baking is fantastic, but consuming all that I make isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a smart dietary strategy. So IÃ¢â¬â¢ve decided cooking will be my new hobby. Although deciding to do something IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never particularly liked for fun is a little weird, it makes a lot of sense. IÃ¢â¬â¢d love to have a hobby again. I like food, I need to eat, and eating better food would probably make me feel better. By approaching cooking as a hobby instead of a chore, I hope it will be fun, not the high-pressure job of reforming my diet. Ideally cooking will become something I want to do, not have to do. These are the guidelines IÃ¢â¬â¢ve established so I donÃ¢â¬â¢t exhaust myself. Is it contradictory to set goals for a hobby? Use Simple Recipes IÃ¢â¬â¢m currently taking Mark BittmanÃ¢â¬â¢s (aka The Minimalist) no-nonsense approach: Make better food in less time with fewer ingredients. IÃ¢â¬â¢m starting small with his very short cookbook, How to Cook Everything: Quick Cooking. It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t an overwhelming tome, but a short introduction to tasty basic recipes. A perfect housewarming gift for someone in their first apartment, the book includes variations for the more experienced or adventurous cook. IÃ¢â¬â¢m supplementing with The Minimalist Cooks at Home for variety. (ItÃ¢â¬â¢s out-of-print, but is available used. ) IÃ¢â¬â¢ve owned it for four years and have liked the few things IÃ¢â¬â¢ve made from his books. Now my plan is to approach it methodically. Like Julie and Julia, where blogger Julie Powell set out to make every recipe in Julia ChildÃ¢â¬â¢s Mastering The Art of French Cooking. The MinimalistÃ¢â¬â¢s goals are much less lofty, but the idea is the same. Buy Ingredients for One Meal at a Time. This is to avoid wasting food and feeling like IÃ¢â¬â¢ve failed. I broke this Ã¢â¬Å"ruleÃ¢â¬ one day into my plan. Because this is a new hobby, not a resolution, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve no need to beat myself up. Good things hobbies donÃ¢â¬â¢t have rules. Besides, I still think I can do it. Learn New Techniques This is the part that turns work into entertainment. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always been reluctant to cook meat on the stove. In fact, IÃ¢â¬â¢m reluctant to cook meat at all. Not only do I get to produce an edible product (however bad it may be), I expand my skills and learn new recipes. This will make my hobby more fun in the future. Tomorrow IÃ¢â¬â¢m taking the knife skills class IÃ¢â¬â¢ve wanted to take for years. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a morning class, so IÃ¢â¬â¢m confident IÃ¢â¬â¢ll make it this time. IÃ¢â¬â¢m already daydreaming about future classes. Do It I made my recipe plan yesterday morning, then Hart called to say he had a work dinner. I felt crappy, so it was fine, but my motivation is far weaker than 24 hours ago. I hope applying the techniques of the knife skills class will boost my overall motivation. Clearly thereÃ¢â¬â¢s little difference between my new hobby and a New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s resolution. Since resolutions usually fail, IÃ¢â¬â¢m relying on the power reframing. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an essential skill of every optimist.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Use of Word Stems in English In English grammar and morphology, a stem is the form of a word before any inflectional affixes are added. In English, most stems also qualify as words. The term base is commonly used by linguists to refer to any stem (or root) to which an affix is attached. Identifying a Stem A stem may consist of a single root, of two roots forming a compound stem, or of a root (or stem) and one or more derivational affixes forming a derived stem.(R. M. W. Dixon, The Languages of Australia. Cambridge University Press, 2010) Combining Stems The three main morphological processes are compounding, affixation, and conversion. Compounding involves adding two stems together, as in . . . windows are to be found, however, where an affix is added to a bound stemcompare perishable, where perish is free, with durable, where dur is bound, or unkind, where kind is free, with unbeknown, where beknown is bound. . . . Stem Conversion Conversion is where a stem is derived without any change in form from one belonging to a different class. For example, the verb bottle (I must bottle some plums) is derived by conversion from the noun bottle, while the noun catch (That was a fine catch) is converted from the verb.(Rodney D. Huddleston,Ã English Grammar: An Outline. Cambridge University Press, 1988) The Difference Between a Base and a Stem Base is the core of a word, that part of the word which is essential for looking up its meaning in the dictionary; stem is either the base by itself or the base plus another morpheme to which other morphemes can be added. [For example,] vary is both a base and a stem; when an affix is attached the base/stem is called a stem only. Other affixes can now be attached.(Bernard ODwyer,Ã Modern English Structures: Form, Function, and Position. Broadview, 2000) The Difference Between a Root and a Stem The terms root and stem are sometimes used interchangeably. However, there is a subtle difference between them: a root is a morpheme that expresses the basic meaning of a word and cannot be further divided into smaller morphemes. Yet a root does not necessarily constitute a fully understandable word in and of itself. Another morpheme may be required. For example, the form struct in English is a root because it cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts, yet neither can it be used in discourse without a prefix or a suffix being added to it (construct, structural, destruction, etc.)Ã A stem may consist of just a root. However, it may also be analyzed into a root plusÃ derivational morphemesÃ . . .. Like a root, a stem may or may not be a fully understandable word. For example, in English, the formsÃ reduceÃ andÃ deduceÃ are stems because they act like any other regular verbthey can take theÃ past-tenseÃ suffix. However, they are not roots, because they can be ana lyzed into two parts,Ã -duce, plus aÃ derivationalÃ prefixÃ re-Ã orÃ de-.So some roots are stems, and some stems are roots. ., but roots and stems are not the same thing. There are roots that are not stems (-duce), and there are stems that are not roots (reduce). In fact, this rather subtle distinction is not extremely important conceptually, and some theories do away with it entirely.(Thomas Payne,Ã Exploring Language Structure: A Students Guide. Cambridge University Press, 2006) Ã¢â¬â¹Irregular Plurals Once there was a song about a purple-people-eater, but it would be ungrammatical to sing about a purple-babies-eater. Since the licit irregular plurals and the illicit regular plurals have similar meanings, it must be the grammar of irregularity that makes the difference.The theory of word structure explains the effect easily. Irregular plurals, because they are quirky, have to be stored in the mental dictionary as roots or stems; they cannot be generated by a rule. Because of this storage, they can be fed into the compounding rule that joins an existing stem to another existing stem to yield a new stem. But regular plurals are not stems stored in the mental dictionary; they are complex words that are assembled on the fly by inflectional rules whenever they are needed. They are put together too late in the root-to-stem-to-word assembly process to be available to the compounding rule, whose inputs can only come out of the dictionary.(Steven Pinker, The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. William Morrow, 1994)
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
buy custom Antibiotic Resistance essay An antibiotic refers to a medication that destroys or inhibits the growth of microorganisms (Tenover, 2006). Such microorganisms can be either bacteria or fungi, or certain parasites such as malarial parasites. Medical professionals are facing a serious problem about antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance refers to the ability of microorganisms to withstand the effects of antibiotics (Tenover, 2006). Antibiotic resistance has become a common problem across the world because people are using antibiotics a lot and inappropriately. Proper use of antibiotics is the only way to control the spread of antibiotic resistance. This discussion will focus on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, prognosis and treatment of its infections, and causes and prevention of its resistance. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that causes infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, toxic shock syndrome, just to mention a few (French Otter, 2010). Health physicians base the prognosis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections on various symptoms such as fever, headache, lethargy, reddening of skin, and inflammation of wounds (French Otter, 2010). Methicillin has been a common antibiotic in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections over years. However, Staphylococcus aureus bacterium has become resistant to methicillin antibiotic. Causes of methicillin resistance include unnecessary prescription, incorrect diagnosis, and improper use of methicillin antibiotic, which results in a random mutation of the bacterium (French Otter, 2010). A bacterium becomes a superbug when it carries a variety of resistance genes. Prudent prescribing of antibiotics is the best measure to prevent antibiotic resistance. Vancomycin antib iotic can effectively treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections (French Otter, 2010). Therefore, antibiotic resistance is not futile because of a variety of preventive and control measures. Prudent prescribing of antibiotics can prevent the occurrence of resistance. This preventive measure can also avoid the emergence of superbug. Superbug results from the ability of a bacterium to carry a variety of resistance genes due to improper prescribing. If microorganisms have become antibiotic-resistant, use of new drugs will be necessary (French Otter, 2010). Buy custom Antibiotic Resistance essay
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Select a photograph of your choice and, using the processes of visual analysis, discuss Sontag's statement in relation to fas - Essay Example Sontag was born Susan Rosenblatt, in New York the spawn of Mildred and Jack Rosenblatt, who both hailed from Jewish origins. All through SonntagÃ¢â¬â¢s had a great passion and liking of photography. She started publishing articles on photography in the New York review of books within 1973 to 1977. She would later release books on photography where she would express her stance on the past account and present-day function, off camera work in capitalist countries as well as the impact of photography of the 1970s.During this time she discussed a lot of examples issues and challenges facing modern photography. Susan is well known for her tremendous contribution in photography in one of his books he outlines the importance of photos. Photographs provide proof. Something we listen to, but suspicion, seems to confirm when we're provided with a photo of it. In one account of its effectiveness, the camera evidence incriminates. In one of her books On Photography page 23 (1979) Susan tries to express how she feels what is expressed through the lens holds back more realistic. Information then it gives at one point stating that Ã¢â¬Å"the cameras rendering of reality must hide more than it disclosesÃ¢â¬ . This statement that forms the context the study for the rest of the paper. In an effort to count our discount this statement in line with the photo used and how this statement impacts of fashion as a whole. The statement tries to suggest that. For each and every photo taken it holds back more ideal and real information than the one it puts forth or discloses as the reality. In the picture depicted above is captioned from an upfront close up position concentrating only on the face of the individual. The content of the photograph can be easily be identified. The sense of style and fashion is well depicted the photo even outlines a habitual practice of the party involved as it shows him smoking further propagating the notion that smoking is fashionable as many believe. Sa ntiagoÃ¢â¬â¢s statement states that the camera rendering the reality must always hide more than it reveals discloses. This statement may draw various interpretations according to the specific photo in context. The thematic approach and the contents of the photo, this is more of a fact as the cameras outcome can be easily be determined by the person taking the caption. It has been well known that photographers tend to present the type of photo they believe is the most appealing to the individual or for a particular cause. Photography has undergone great revolution overtime since the advent of photos in the 1830s technological advancement has propelled the whole aspect of photography to a new level of great significance. The above photo has been taken from a close vantage point and partially exposed to right with the sole intention of making it more appealing. This is further proof of SantiagoÃ¢â¬â¢s statement that for every part depicted allot more of significance left behind the scenes so that the photo will remain relevant by creating the impression given. Though the approach is upfront its not a direct approach as the individual though the intention of the photographer is evident as the point of attention is the face. The dark background is effectively utilized so that it can hinder any other feature within the individuals that may try to show the opposite of what the
Friday, November 1, 2019
Case Management - Assignment Example However, people tried to kill my dream by discouraging me into joining the nursing school. For this reason, I diverted into legal studies, where I managed to get a degree in 1998. However, I now seek to pursue my dream and have decided to branch off into nursing. Through getting a place in the nursing school, I will be able to nurture my talent, hence contribute to a healthy society. I realize that people pass through different stages, both pleasurable and unpleasant. During these times, I enjoy being a source of encouragement to people. For instance, when an individual is on his/her deathbed, I sympathize with him/her by giving comfort, and other material needs. In moments of joy, for instance, birth, I rejoice with the new mother and seek to give any assistance that would contribute to their joy. Through this, I have learned to share intimate times with people, hence encouraging me to pursue a career in nursing. Joining the nursing school will allow me to become well equipped with the skills of nursing. In addition, I will apply the skills gained in a veteran hospital where I have worked for six years now. Through this work, I have gained experience of working with both sick and well veterans. However, I have realized that I need to learn a few more concepts and skills in order to give my services satisfactorily. Thus, the skills gained in the nursing school will make my skills better. Apart from working in the veteran hospital, I intend to visit marginal societies, where treatment is minimal and give assistance. For instance, I will contribute to the profession by visiting Africa, where I intend to use my skills to save the lives of many people. Some, for instance, are ignorant of healthy ways of living, thus experience high rates of mortality frequently. Therefore, apart from offering services, I intend to train other nurses, who will assist in saving lives. Moreover, I will teach people ways of taking care of other patients at home, eating
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Does Language Play Roles Of Equal Importance In Different Areas Of Knowledge - Essay Example There are four Ways of Knowing perception, emotion, reason, and language.The question each and every other way of knowing is controlled by means of language is a statement that needs more investigation as well as reflection.Ã There are four Ways of Knowing perception, emotion, reason, and language. One is supposed to use the Ways of Knowing and the Areas of Knowledge to acquire, perceive, and apply knowledge.The question each and every other way of knowing is controlled by means of language is a statement that needs more investigation as well as reflection.Ã Knowledge can be said to be informed that the brain has received that meets a certain set of criteria. When someone states that they know something they must also believe that, that something is so. Language always is known for its words. And a language also requires a lot of easy words to be spoken every where. If language is spoken in extremely different places in a huge area that shows this language is has a big word capac ity and a great deal easier than the other languages to comprehend. Words are determining the quality of language and so are important in every area of knowledge. Words seem to be so simple for a look but that is not really true. Ã A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together and has a phonetical value. In general, a word will have a root or stem and zero or extra affixes. Words can be joint to make phrases, clauses, and well-structured sentences.
Monday, October 28, 2019
Plea Bargain Essay Ã¢â¬Å"The plea bargain was a prosecutorial tool used only episodically before the 19th centuryÃ¢â¬ (Dirk Olin, 2002) Plea bargaining has assumed a significant role in the criminal jurisprudence of the United States. A majority of criminal cases in the United States are settled through plea bargaining rather than a conducted jury trial. This paper details some of the basic details relating to plea bargaining in the American criminal judicial system. Background A plea bargain usually implies a deal offered by a prosecutor as an incentive for the defendant to plead guilty. Plea bargaining thus can be construed as pre-trial negotiations between the accused and the prosecution during the process of which the accused agrees to plead guilty in exchange for certain concessions in the sentence or charges as offered by the prosecution. There is no specific or perfect definition of Ã¢â¬Ëplea bargainÃ¢â¬â¢ has so far been evolved. According to BlackÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Dictionary plea bargaining is Ã¢â¬Å"the process whereby the accused and the prosecutor in a criminal case work out a mutually satisfactory disposition of the case subject to court approval. It usually involves the defendants pleading guilty to a lesser offense or to only one or some of the counts of a multi-count indictment in return for a lighter sentence than that possible for the graver chargeÃ¢â¬ However, in practice plea bargaining is often considered as the mutual acknowledgement of the strengths and weaknesses of the both the defense and prosecution sides in the midst of the tedious process of the trial of the cases and the potential outcome of the trials rather than a mutually satisfied arrangement. Plea bargaining may be attempted at any time; usually it occurs on a pre-trial stage; but in some cases may be undertaken during the conduct of the trial before the verdict is rendered. There is a possibility that plea bargain may be negotiated after a trial has resulted in a Ã¢â¬Ëhung juryÃ¢â¬â¢. Under such circumstance the parties may negotiate a plea bargain instead of going through the process of another trial. In some common law jurisdictions like England and Wales, Victoria, Australia plea bargaining is undertaken to such an extent that the prosecutors and defense can mutually agree that the defendant will plead guilty to certain of the charges and the prosecution drops the rest of the charges. (Legal Pundits) However no bargaining can take place in respect of the penalties that can be levied and the courts proceed to decide the appropriate penalty in such cases. Types of Plea Bargains If in the judicial system every case is allowed to go to trial the courts would find it difficult to try and decide on all the cases. Plea bargaining allows the prosecutor an opportunity to obtain guilty pleas in cases which otherwise would go to the stage of trial by the courts concerned. There are two areas in which plea bargain negotiations can be undertaken. They are: Ã · Charge Bargaining Ã¢â¬â in the case of Ã¢â¬Ëcharge bargainingÃ¢â¬â¢ the defendant is allowed to Ã¢â¬Ëplead guilty for a lesser chargeÃ¢â¬â¢ by the prosecutor. Alternatively the defendant may plead guilty of only some of the charges that have been filed against him. This type of plea bargaining is the most common type. Usually the prosecutor in consideration for a plea of guilty to the committing of a lesser charge will dismiss the higher charge. For example in return accepting guilty plea for Ã¢â¬ËmanslaughterÃ¢â¬â¢ the charges of a first degree murder may be dismissed with the approval of the court. Similarly a defendant who has been charged with the crime of Ã¢â¬ËburglaryÃ¢â¬â¢ may be allowed to plead guilty of Ã¢â¬Ëattempted burglaryÃ¢â¬â¢ where the sentence may be less. Ã · Sentence Bargaining Ã¢â¬â this involves the agreement for pleading guilty for the charges stated in consideration of a lighter sentence. Under this process the prosecution is saved of the time and efforts to go through the process of trial and proving the case. It also provides the defendant to opt for a lighter sentence which would otherwise have been stronger if a trial is conducted and verdict given. Typically all the sentence bargains are to obtain the approval of the trial judges. This type of plea bargaining is being limited by many of the jurisdictions. Sentence bargaining usually happens in some of the high profile cases where the case is being followed effectively by the media and the prosecutor does not want any reduction of charges in the case. In addition to the above there can be another area of plea bargaining known as Ã¢â¬ËFact BargainingÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â which is the least used process of negotiation with the defendant for admitting certain of the facts of the case. The defendant is given the concession that the prosecution will not bring certain other facts in to evidence if some of the other facts are confirmed by the defendant. This process saves the efforts of the prosecutor the need to prove certain facts in the course of trial. Process of Plea Bargaining There are three essential components which form the basis for making the plea bargains valid. They are; (i) a waiver of rights to the knowledge of all involved, (ii) the waiver should be a voluntary one arrived at using a process of negotiation and (iii) the presence of a factual basis which can support the charges to which the defendant has chosen to plead guilty. Plea bargaining takes place through telephonic conversations or is being attempted at the office of the prosecutor in the court room. Normally the judges do not take part in the process of plea bargaining. But in rare circumstances a judge becomes a party to the plea bargain process. Once the process of bargaining is completed it is placed on record by judge in the open court. At the time of placing the plea bargain on record it is necessary that the defendant is present in the court. It must be noted that the prosecutor is not given the authority to compel a court to accept the plea bargain agreement entered in to by the parties. The prosecutor can only recommend the acceptance of any plea bargain and it is for the court to decide on accepting the plea bargain arrived at. The court will go through the process of satisfying itself through available proofs that the abovementioned three essential elements of plea bargain are present. Only on satisfying about the presence of these elements the court will accept the plea bargain arrangement as recommended by the prosecution. Plea bargaining cannot be considered as a simple process that can be attempted in any case. Ã¢â¬Å"In effectively negotiating a criminal plea arrangement, the attorney must have the technical knowledge of every element of a crime or charge, an understanding of the actual or potential evidence that exists or could be developed, a technical knowledge of lesser included offenses versus separate counts or crimes, and a reasonable understanding of sentencing guidelinesÃ¢â¬ Merits and Demerits of Plea Bargaining Despite the often pointed out criticisms there are certain distinct merits the process of plea bargaining has. It is often the case that more than 90 percent of the criminal cases are decided on the basis of negotiated pleas. This leaves only a meager percentage of the criminal cases going through the process of judicial trial. It provides the judges considerable saving in time in conducting the trials as the judges already hold overcrowded dockets. Further the judges with a view to avoid overcrowding of the prisons are always in favor of negotiated plea bargains. They are receptive to the Ã¢â¬Ëprocessing outÃ¢â¬â¢ of the criminals who are not likely to get much longer jail terms at the end of the trial. Similarly for the prosecutors since there caseload becomes lighter they can efficiently discharge their functions. The other important aspect of plea bargain is that the process assures a sure Ã¢â¬ËconvictionÃ¢â¬â¢ even the charges accepted are lesser than the originally stated ones. In some of the cases the prosecutors are made to spend considerable time and efforts in defending cases which finally the cases are lost as happened in the case of murder trial of O.J. Simpson. Plea bargaining enable the prosecutors to use the process to obtain damaging testimony against another defendant in the case. This ensures that the prosecutor is sure of at least one conviction even if for a lesser charge and the chances of booking the second defendant also against the testimony of the first defendant obtained through plea bargain. For the defendants plea bargaining provides the opportunity to bargain for a lighter sentence on reduced charges. If the defendant is represented by a private counsel appointed by him the defendant would be able to save considerable costs on conducting the trial. This also provides the opportunity for getting a record of lesser criminal offenses against him. There are certain drawbacks of the plea bargaining process; when the police are involved in the process it may amount to coercion. When the court is involved in the process it may be considered as impartiality on the part of the court. Involving the victim in the process may involve corruption and the rejection of the guilty plea by the accused may result in more hardship to him. (Soura Subha Ghosh) US Supreme Court Cases According to Article III Section 2 (3) of the Constitution of the United States Ã¢â¬Å"The trial of all crimes, except in Cases of impeachment, shall be by JuryÃ¢â¬ However it has not been held that it is unconstitutional to go through a process of plea bargaining to avoid the judicial trials. On the contrary there are a number of court decisions at the highest levels which have taken up the issue of Ã¢â¬Ëplea bargainingÃ¢â¬â¢ for serious discussion and ruling. The constitutional validity of plea bargaining was addressed by the US Supreme Court only when the process has become an integral part of the criminal judiciary. (eNotes.com) In the case of United States v Jackson (1968) the Court had raised a question on the validity of plea bargaining to the extent that whether the process has burdened the right of the defendant to go through a process of jury trial. In this case the issue was the consideration of a statute that imposed a death penalty only after a jury trial. In this case in order to avoid the death penalty the defendant continued to waive the trials and was eager to negotiate for plea bargaining for a reduction in sentence.Ã In this case the judge noted that the statue had needlessly encouraged guilty pleas. In the case of Brady v. United States, 397 U.S. 742 (1970) the Court had noted that the plea bargaining process had benefitted both the parties to the case and had thus defended the system. The Court made it known that the remark in the Jackson case was to stress the need for the guilty pleas to be intelligent and voluntary. In Santobello v New York, 404 U.S. 260 (1971) the Court observed that the plea bargaining is an essential component of the administration of justice and thus had justified the constitutional acceptability of the plea bargaining process. The Court added that [as long as it is] properly administered, [plea bargaining] is to be encouraged. North Carolina v Alford, 400 U.S. 25 (1970) can be cited as a landmark case relating to the sphere of plea bargaining. In this case Alford pleaded guilty to a second degree murder prior to trail in the wake of the fact that otherwise he would be sentenced to death penalty on a jury trial in the presence of strong evidences. He was sentenced to 30 years imprisonment. Later on he appealed that his plea bargain was involuntary and was motivated by the fear of death penalty. The appeal court allowed the appeal and reversed his conviction. His argument was on the basis of that the plea bargain violated the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution which states that no person shall be compelled in a criminal case to witness against himself. However the Supreme Court held that a guilty plea representing a voluntary and intelligent choice considering the alternatives available to the defendant cannot be construed that the defendant was compelled (in violation of the Fifth Amendment to the constitution) to follow the guilty plea to avoid the possibility of death penalty. The Supreme Court ordered for the reversal of the appeal court decision and reinstated the sentence of Alford. The term Ã¢â¬ËAlford PleaÃ¢â¬â¢ thus has come into usage to signify those cases where the defendant tenders a guilty plea and later on denies that he has not committed any crime. There is an express prohibition of Ã¢â¬ËAlford PleaÃ¢â¬â¢ in certain states and some of the States allow a limited use of the plea. Breaking the Plea Bargain Deal A plea bargain is regarded as a contract between the prosecutor and the defendant and as such both the parties are obligated to perform their parts of the contract without fail. The prosecutor has the authority to revoke the plea bargain if the defendant does not carry out his part of the contract. On the other hand if the prosecutor breaks a deal with the defendant then the defendant has the right to claim for setting aside the plea. Alternatively the defendant may require the court to intervene and instruct the prosecutor to carryout the plea bargain. Ã¢â¬Å"This may happen if the prosecutor has agreed not to authorize additional criminal charges against the defendant in return for the guilty plea, yet subsequently files the chargesÃ¢â¬ (Aaron Larson, 2000)